The government is calling on teachers, parents and charities to contribute ideas to its special educational needs (SEN) green paper.
Due to be published in autumn, it aims to improve the SEN system and will cover issues such as school choice, early identification and family support.
"Children with SEN and disabilities should have the same opportunities as other children, but the current system is so adversarial that too often this doesn't happen," said children's minister Sarah Teather.
Parents should be involved in their children's education and make decisions about the kind of support they require, rather than having to battle against the system, she added.
Ministers will be considering a range of options, such as how the unnecessary closure of special schools can be prevented.
Speaking at an Every Disabled Child Matters event earlier this year, Ms Teather said it is important that children with SEN are given the same opportunities as other children.